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-- Medical schools
- Early history
For much of its history, New Jersey lacked schools providing formal medical education. During the colonial period, aspiring physicians often would apprentice to those already in practice, and begin treating patients on their own without undergoing a licensing process to certify their ability. The lack of standards led to others with little or no medical training, such as barbers or dentists, to set themselves up as physicians, sometimes competing with trained practitioners by offering lower fees. In 1766, the New Jersey Medical Society--the first of its kind in America--was founded largely to elevate the professional status of trained physicians by seeking to have the public recognize its members as the most qualified practitioners, as well as establishing standard fees for common treatments and services to discourage cut-rate competition. Significantly, the Society's constitution expressly declared that it would "...do all in its power to discourage and discountenance all quacks, mountebanks, imposters, or other ignorant pretenders to medicine.”
As medical schools began to be opened in New York and Philadelphia, New Jersey residents were able to enroll for formal education, but a share of these new doctors would choose not to return to their home state to pursue their medical careers. In the 19th century, the domination of out-of-state medical schools and the prestige of practitioners in the nearby cities also led to a perception that higher-quality care was available outside New Jersey, with those who could afford the care frequently choosing to go to New York and Philadelphia for treatment.
* The evolution of Rutgers medical schools and the impact on their libraries, Jackie Mardikian (2014)
- Creation of first medical school
It was not until past the middle of the 20th century that New Jersey established its first medical school when Seton Hall Medical School was opened for students in Jersey City in 1956. After soon encountering financial problems, however, it closed in 1962 and was purchased by the state government, which changed its name to the New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, and moved it from Jersey City to Newark. Meanwhile, The Rutgers Medical School opened in 1966 as a two-year basic science institution offering the master of medical science degree. Four years later, The College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey was created by the legislature with the consolidation of the governing boards of Rutgers Medical School (now named Robert Wood Johnson Medical School) and the New Jersey College of Medicine and Dentistry, with the resulting school renamed in 1981 as the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey. With campuses located throughout the state, UMDNJ was the largest school of health sciences of its kind in the United States.
- Recent developments
Medical education in the state underwent a series of additional restructurings in the new century. In part, the actions resulted from ongoing controversies over the management of UMDNJ, as well as recognition that the state was facing a shortage of physicians, which by 2020 was projected to reach a shortfall of 2,500 primary-care physicians and specialists. In 2009, Rowan University and The Cooper Health System partnered to establish the Cooper Medical School of Rowan University—a four-year medical school located in Camden and the first new medical school to be created in the state in three decades. The new medical school also was bolstered by the transfer, pursuant to the New Jersey Medical and Health Sciences Education Restructuring Act enacted in 2012, which dissolved UMDNJ and gave control of UMDNJ's South Jersey facilities to the new school, including its School of Osteopathic Medicine. Additionally, the legislation merged most of UMDNJ's remaining schools into Rutgers University, thus forming a new Rutgers New Jersey Medical School as a unit of the Rutgers Division of Biomedical and Health Sciences effective July 2013. University Hospital in Newark was spun-off as a free-standing medical center owned by the state serving as the principal teaching hospital of Rutgers New Jersey Medical School.
Another new medical school, Hackensack Meridian School of Health at Seton Hall University, began operating in 2018 after Seton Hall University and the Hackensack University Health Network agreed to open a four-year medical school on 20 acres at the former Hoffmann-La Roche pharmaceutical site in Nutley and Clifton. The school is the first private medical school in New Jersey and enrolled its first class of 50 students in fall 2018, with plans for enrollment gradually increasing to some 500.
There are over 2,000 students enrolled in New Jersey medical and osteopathic schools, according to the latest data from the Association of American Medical Colleges. More than 30 applicants compete for each place in a medical school class in New Jersey, and of those applicants around nine are residents of the state. Over a third of graduates, however, left the state after graduation to practice, and more than half of medical students entering medical residencies in New Jersey hospitals and institutions come from a foreign medical school.
- Physician supply and compensation
There were 31,545 active physicians in New Jersey in 2021, according to the latest data from the Association of American Medical Colleges. On the basis of a survey published in 2020 by the web site 247wallstreet.com, the average salary of $252,750 for all physicians in New Jersey ranked 27th of the 50 states. As in the nation as a whole, medical specialists, however, made substantially more, with an average of $383,000, a differential cited as a key factor in the shortage of primary care physicians.
Health care analysts project a growing shortage of physicians in the state as its aging baby boom generation increases demand, particularly for primary health care. New Jersey has the third highest percentage of older doctors in the country, according to the Association of American Medical Colleges, with about a third of its physicians aged 60 or older as of 2014, the most recent year of available data. The relatively small enrollments of New Jersey medical schools also contribute to the physician shortfall; the state has the highest percentage of foreign-educated physicians in the country, with 38% compared to the overall national average of 24%.
-- New Jersey
> Average doctor salary: $252,750
> Average medical specialist salary: $383,000
> Average salary for all occupations: $53,920
> Primary care physicians (per 100,000 residents): 145.2 (8th highest)
> Health care spending per capita: $7,583 (13th highest)
> Uninsured rate: 15.0% (23rd lowest)
* Association of American Medical Colleges
* New Jersey Physician and Surgeon Occupational Profile, CareerOneStop, US Department of Labor
- Physician licensing
New Jersey's State Board of Medical Examiners determines qualifications of applicants for licensure as physicians, establishing standards for practice, and disciplining licensees for violations. In addition to physicians and podiatrists, the Board licenses and certifies certain other health care professionals. The Board also publishes an online directory of licensed physicians with a profile of their areas of practice,
* New Jersey State Board of Medical Examiners
-- Medical Schools
- Robert Wood Johnson Medical School
Comprises 22 academic departments and works with several healthcare partners, including its principal teaching hospital, The University Hospital in Newark. In addition to providing MD degree, offers MD/PhD, MD/MPH and MD/MBA degrees through collaborations with other institutions of higher education. Hosts more than 50 centers and institutes, including the Public Health Research Institute Center, the Global Tuberculosis Institute and the Neurological Institute of New Jersey.
- Cooper Medical School of Rowan University
School of Osteopathic Medicine offers doctor of osteopathy degree, enrolled initial class in August 2012, and became fully accredited upon graduation of its class in May 2016. Principal hospital system Kennedy University Hospital (Cherry Hill, Stratford and Washington Township); teaching affiliates Lourdes Health System (Camden and Willingboro); Inspira Health Network (Bridgeton, Elmer, Woodbury and Vineland); Cooper University Hospital; Hackensack Meridian Health System; Christ Hospital; and Atlantic Health System
-- Nursing Schools
Nursing is regulated by the New Jersey Board of Nursing established in 1912 by state law, which certifies nursing schools and other educational programs and licenses individual nurses who have met designated standards, including passage of the National Council Licensure Examination. Nursing is categorized in various occupational classifications. Licensed practical nurses (LPNs) can often complete their education in less than one year of full-time study with the award of a diploma or certificate for licensure; registered nurses (RNs) may obtain an Associate's degree normally taking two years for entry-level RN jobs and also pursue a four-year Bachelor's degree needed for nursing specialties. A few nursing schools also offer master's and doctoral programs for nurses generally seeking supervisory, administrative or academic positions in health care. In New Jersey and the nation, nurses also are attempting to gain greater recognition as professionals by being licensed as physician assistants; nurse practitioners; nurse midwives; and other designations intended to identify advanced or specialty training.
Nurses with advanced degrees or specializations may have annual incomes well above $100,000.
* New Jersey Nursing Occupational Profile, CareerOneStop, US Department of Labor
* New Jersey Nursing Initiative
* New Jersey State Nurses Association
* New Jersey League for Nursing
* New Jersey Nursing Profile, graduatenursingedu.org
There are currently 45 schools offering various levels of nursing education in New Jersey, with most community colleges offering programs for diplomas or associates degrees leading to qualification as a Registered Nurse. In the annual ranking by US News & World Report of the "Best Nursing Schools in the US," the Rutgers masters of science in nursing degree program is ranked 19th, the only New Jersey program included in the top 100. Below are a selection of schools with programs offering a Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (PhD); Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP); Master of Science in Nursing (MSN); Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN); or Registered Nurse (RN).
* 2021 Best Nursing Schools, US News & World Report
* New Jersey Board of Nursing
* New Jersey Collaborating Center for Nursing
* Nurse Practitioner Guide, RegisteredNursing.org
* Nurse Practitioner programs, RegiosteredNursing.org
* Nurse Practitioner Certifications, NursePractionerSchools.org
* Online RN to BSN Programs
* Certified Nursing Assistant Careers, CNAbuzz.com
* Degrees for Mental Health & Addiction Professionals, DrugRehab.com
* Health Research and Educational Trust of New Jersey
-- Medical Assistant Schools & Programs